All the content on this website is based on research. If you would like to find out more about the scientific research we have used, and articles we have referred to, please have a look at the list of references below.

If you would like to see a report of our own market research and impact, please click here.


Gill, P., Horgan, J., and Deckert, P. (2014). Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviours of Lone-Actor Terrorists. Journal of Forensic Science, 59(2), pp. 425-435

Hamm, M., and Spaaj, R. (2015). Lone Wolf Terrorism in America: Using Knowledge of Radicalization Pathways to Forge Preventative Strategies. Available at:

McCauley, C., & Moskalenko, S. (2008). Mechanisms of political radicalization: Pathways towards terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 20(3), 415-433.

Meloy, J. R., Hoffman, J., Guldimann, A. & James, D. (2012). The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: An exploration and suggested typology. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 30, 256-279.

Norwegian Ministry of Justice and Public Security. (2014). Action Plan against Radicalization and Violent Extremism.

Simon, J.D. (2013). Lone Wolf Terrorism: Understanding the Growing Threat. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Spaaj, R. (2010). The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: An assessment. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33(9), 854-870.

Spaaj, R. (2012). Understanding lone wolf terrorism. Global patterns, motivations and prevention. SpringerBeliefs in Criminology, Springer.

What Can You Do

Williams, M. J., Horgan, J. G., & Evans, W. P. (2015). The critical role of friends in networks for countering violent extremism: toward a theory of vicarious help-seeking. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 1-21.

Islamist Extremism

“Understanding Islamic Extremism | Clarion Project.”, January 26, 2014.

Home Office. “Proscribed Terrorist Organisations,” October 30, 2015.

Taylor, Alan. “9/11: The Day of the Attacks.” The Atlantic, September 8, 2011.

“Paris Attacks: What Happened on the Night.” BBC News. Accessed November 30, 2015.

Anderson, Mark. “Nigeria Suffers Highest Number of Civilian Deaths in African War Zones.” The Guardian, January 23, 2015, sec. Global development.

Fraser, Isabelle. “Molenbeek Mayor Received Terror Suspects List Including on-the-Run Salah Abdeslam One Month before Paris Attacks,” November 26, 2015, sec. World.

Right-Wing Extremism

Cas Mudde, “Right-Wing Extremism Analyzed” European Journal of Political Research 27, no. 2 (February 1, 1995): 203–24.

Klaus von Beyme, “Right‐wing Extremism in Post‐war Europe,” West European Politics 11, no. 2 (April 1, 1988): 1–18.

Charles Kurzman and David Schanzer, “The Growing Right-Wing Terror Threat,” The New York Times, June 16, 2015,

“Challengers from the Sidelines: Understanding America’s Violent Far-Right | Combating Terrorism Center at West Point,” accessed November 11, 2015,

“Right-Wing Terrorists Twice as Likely to Kill Americans than Muslim Jihadists Are ‒ Report,” RT English, accessed November 11, 2015,

Hywel Griffith, “Far right ‘targeting new, younger generation,” BBC News, accessed November 11, 2015,

“National Action’s Zack Davies guilty of attempted murder,” Channel 4 News, accessed November 11, 2015,

“Zack Davies: life sentence for Wales neo-Nazi attack,” Channel 4 News, accessed November 11, 2015,

Steven Morris, “Nazi-obsessed loner guilty of attempted murder of dentist in racist attack,” The Guardian, accessed November 11, 2015,

Steven Morris, “‘Lee Rigby revenge’ attacker jailed for life,” The Guardian, accessed November 11, 2015,